Largest trait differences?
Managers have a tendency to score higher than employee on most personality traits assessed by OPTO.
However, nine out of 20 aspects measured by OPTO have a difference large enough to be considered meaningful (Cohens d effect size above .20)
The trait showing the very largest difference is Assertiveness (d = .72), followed by Drive (d = .43), Ingenuity (d = .35) and Confidence (d = .31), shown in the plot to the right.
Data sample: over 17.000 respondents (employees 69%, managers 31%), from 132 nationalities between 2020 and 2022.