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Largest trait differences?

Managers have a tendency to score higher than employee on most personality traits assessed by OPTO.

However, nine out of 20 aspects measured by OPTO have a difference large enough to be considered meaningful (Cohens d effect size above .20)

The trait showing the very largest difference is Assertiveness (d = .72), followed by Drive (d = .43), Ingenuity (d = .35) and Confidence (d = .31), shown in the plot to the right.

Data sample: over 17.000 respondents (employees 69%, managers 31%), from 132 nationalities between 2020 and 2022. 


Management level

A total of nine OPTO aspects show a meaningful score difference between managers and employees.

There is a tendency for the difference to increase by the level of management, from middle managers to top management. 

Fun fact: Quality Assurance is the only trait where Managers score less than employees.